Situational Awareness: 3 Keys to Safety!

Knowing exactly where you are (physically and mentally), precisely what you are trying to accomplish (mental model) and the “next thing”(expected/intended outcome) is called “situational awareness” (SA). Understanding and operating this critical mental process is the heart of aviation safety. In every area of aviation our mental content will vary be it VFR mountain flying or busy IFR in the Bravo.  But the mental process and tool kit are the same.

Level One SA is data input, and being present entirely in the moment.

Given perfect situational awareness (SA) a pilot will perceive an environment completely free of physical or physiological hindrances. But human factors problems complicate this objective; is it too dark, or blinded by the sun, forgot your readers? And psychological problems also provide challenges; fatigue, stress or complacency limit our attention/perception. Distraction and “multi-tasking” – ATC calling, pax or pilot interaction – are a fact of life in aviation and they limit our ability to focus and filter signal from noise. And with every distraction to attention “situational awareness recovery” time is required to regain our focus.

According to researchers most errors (76.3%) occur at the Level 1 (perceptual) area – we simply miss the cues, don’t see the signs or we are naturally distracted, bored or blinded in some manner. This is the reason for “sterile cockpit” SOPs in busy environments. A defective mental model also interferes “top down” with perceptual clarity because what we see/hear is driven by what we think is important – we essentially create our own reality. Psychologists call this “attentional blindness” and “perceptual tunneling”  – we miss data that might be critical to safety.

Level two SA is developing a “mental model” and understanding/interpreting the current situation.

What does all this gathered information mean in reference to the current, evolving flight profile? At level two our brain assembles the filtered input data (<10%) and assigns probable meanings. This process functions continuously and interactively and is often entirely at the subconscious level. We operate largely “on autopilot” when we interpret our world, especially in a time-critical, high-stakes environment.

Level 2 is where “hours and experience” help a pilot assemble an accurate mental model. “I’ve seen this story before” is often how we comprehend an evolving situation. The human mind is really a “prediction processing machine” that filters and fits data into an existing mental model. “Cleared for the ILS” engenders a whole spectrum of related and relevant skills, experience and expected patterns. Without this largely subconscious “scripting” we could not function efficiently in our busy buzzing world.

But “hours and experience” is also a problem when we stereotype and  “overfit” a  model or assume everything is as it was before; complacency. Every mental model blinds us to unique occurrences in the perceptual field (attentional blindness – we see what we “expect”). These missed data may be critical to safety (NASA’s leaking “O rings”?) In studies of accidents 20.3% were Level 2 errors; comprehending the data and assembling the mental model to assign meanings.

Level 3 SA is projecting the currently evolving situation into the desired future outcome.

You would think imagination would play no role in aviation, but level three is entirely the creative extrapolation of our current situation into a desired or intended outcome; “I will intercept the LOC, couple to the glideslope, break out at 400′ etc.” As with other levels, fatigue, distraction  and lack of time can damage SA, but Level 3 SA is especially the vulnerable to these demons. Briefing expected actions and mentally testing expected outcomes is a critical safety tool that often gets skipped or overlooked when time is short. Level 3 SA is our primary method to “get ahead of the airplane” and direct a flight rather than just reacting. Level 3 SA is also where we need to step up to a higher order thinking “conscious oversight” level and test our mental model with Daniel Kahneman’s” System 2″ critical analysis. We cannot operate totally on “decision autopilot” if we want to be safe.

So how can we improve our situational awareness?

Constant, active vigilance of the level we are operating in (and where we should be) is one important method to increase SA. As much as possible, I recommend constantly shifting the levels of SA (like a telephoto lens) dynamically changing from big picture to detail view (micro/macro) in a conscious scanning manner. This is what psychologists call “metacognition” and requires both time and practice. We often get fixated at level one (fiddling with a frequency or some frustrating detail) when we should be engaging the bigger picture. “SA scanning” like an instrument scan improves with practice. We respond physiologically to shiny bright buzzers of screens and often miss subtle cues unless we consciously push our mental focus.

Another important method to improve SA is by constantly testing our assumptions (mental models) both internally and with others. We all have human limitations and need to accept the fact that our personal perceptions and mental models may be flawed. Whether we are single pilot or have a partner or co-pilot, it’s critical to solicit input and stay curious and humble. No harm in pinging ATC with a verification or talking through the next leg with your co-pilot. A rigid mindset in a dynamic and evolving environment can be dangerous. We must enforce flexibility and constantly test and  adjust as necessary. Committing to  vigilance and continuous data gathering (rather than numb butt) has saved many flights from disaster.

Most “I was there and survived” stories (I love Ernest Gann) involve an “angel on my shoulder” tha reveals a sudden awareness of the bigger picture or just a subtle clue (level 3 SA). Building more time into your flight profile if possible permits this metacognitive magic or conscious oversight to function. Many accidents are precipitated by time pressure – the airplane was way ahead of the pilot’s mental models. Let me know if any of that helps? Fly safely (and often!)


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Flight Simulation; Turbo-Learning!

The first effective flight simulator was developed by Edwin Link in Upstate NY in 1927. Prior to this creative device, it was also thought that piloting required inborn skills that training could not supply. In the view of the Wright Brothers, a pilot had to possess superior balance and other physical attributes to ever consider becoming a pilot. The Link Trainer demonstrated that necessary pilot skills could be trained with careful repetition and study to any reasonable adept client. Thousands of pilots were trained for the airmail service and later WWII saving the world from fascist domination. Here is an excerpt from The Talent Code illustrating the imense impact of the original Link Trainer:

“Early pilot training was built on the bedrock belief that good pilots are born, not made….The U.S. Patent Office declared Link’s trainer a “novel profitable amusement device.” [and the world ignored this innovation]

In the winter of 1934 President Franklin Roosevelt had a problem. Pilots in the US Army Air Corps–by all accounts the military’s most skilled, combat-ready airmen–were dying in crashes…The carnage was not caused by a war. The pilots were simply trying to fly through winter storms, delivering the U.S. mail… a group of Army Corp brass grew desperate…[and] in one of the first recorded instances of nerd power trumping military tradition, the officers understood its potential [and] the generals ordered the first shipment of Link trainers.

Seven years later. WWII began, and with it the need to transform thousands of unskilled youth into pilots as quickly and safely as possible. That need was answered by ten thousand Link trainers; by the end of the war, a half-million airmen had logged millions of hours in what they fondly called “The Blue Box.”

In 1947 the Air Corps became the U.S. Air Force, and Link went on to build simulators for jets, bombers, and the lunar module for the Apollo mission. Link’s trainer permitted pilots to practice more deeply, to stop, struggle, make errors, and learn from them. During a few hours in a Link trainer, a pilot could ‘take-off’ and ‘land’ a dozen times…He could dive, stall and recover, spending hours inhabiting the sweet spot on the edge of his capabilities in ways he could never risk in an actual plane. The Air Corps pilots who trained in Links were no braver or smarter that the ones who crashed. they simply had the opportunity to practice more deeply.”

Modern day pilots in 121 or 135 operations are intimately familiar with flight simulation as the defacto method for effective learning. Due to the cost of operation and the hazard of real emergency operations, all initial jet training and the “type rating” are taught in a full-motion simulator. Pilots usually never see the actual aircraft until after certification during “Initial Operating Experience” (the familiarization and standardization in the real flight world). Simulators are the most efficient tool we have for efficiently building procedure skills and muscle memory (the neurobiological basis for this is fascinating).

In the last 10 years with lower-cost computer systems, affordable full-motion simulation  have returned to the GA world of small planes. SAFE was an early adopter developing scenario-based training and the Pilot Proficiency Project in the very first Redbird Simulators. One of the most imaginative and encouraging new uses for low cost flight simulators is introducing young people to aviation in venues far from an airport. Many STEM curriculums utilize desktop sims and courseware to allow experimentation and skill-building in a classroom setting. For the motivated and inspired individual a Young Eagle flight and then guided discovery in the real flight environment brings another person into the amazing world of flight. If you do not know where a local simulator might be located, try AvMkt.com one of our members who organizes shared usage of simlator time all over the world.


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Join SAFE to support our safety mission of generating aviation excellence in teaching and flying. Our amazing member benefits pay back your contribution (1/3 off your ForeFlight subscription)! Our FREE SAFE Toolkit App puts required pilot endorsements and experience requirements right on your smartphone and facilitate CFI+DPE teamwork. Our CFI insurance was developed specifically for CFI professionals (and is the best value in the business).

CFI Cover Your Ass(ets)!

Consider the facts: in aviation we teach in a high-risk environment (compared to golf?) and as educators, we often guide high-value clients. When you add the two of these together the result is an incredible amount of, what insurance guys call- “exposure!” Every CFI needs good insurance designed specifically  for the flight training environment.

Just log onto Kathryn’s Report…

If you teach aviation, you are an obvious target for a lawsuit in the event of a tragedy (whether it is your fault or not). In our last article we discussed how to legally set up your “business” – because you are in business“as a CFI selling services. One critical first step is acquiring good insurance to protect your assets. When we started SAFE 10 years ago, the #1 request from members was a “comprehensive, affordable policy specifically specifically designed for CFIs” No one in the industry (except SAFE) provides this. It actually took almost three years to get this program fully developed and accepted in all states (and SAFE gets no $$ from this- – it’s a service to our membership.)

It is almost impossible to read, understand and buy a good insurance policy unless your agent is a knowledgeable, willing partner in the process. “Blanket policies” can have huge loopholes for CFIs you may never be aware of unless you have an agent on your side. When an accident occurs, all you want to hear as a CFI is “you’re fully covered.” DPEs especially can pay huge premiums unless they embrace this program (one DPE had a policy over $6K a year…with lower coverage limits)

When we developed the program at SAFE we insisted the CFI be covered in every category and class for which they are rated with an incentive for pursuing excellence and professional standards. If you are a new seaplane or multi-engine pilot, you are covered. You can even add UAS Instruction (try finding that elsewhere…) If you are a Master Instructor or FAA WINGS participant, you get a discount (we incentivize safety!) To me, one of the best  features of this program is that the agents who manage this program are active pilots in every category and class, they know your problems and can customize your coverage. You can buy and bind your coverage on line or pick up the phone and call Aviation Insurance Resources today…I guarantee you will sleep better at night. Fly safely (and often)!


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Join SAFE to support our safety mission of generating aviation excellence in teaching and flying. Our amazing member benefits pay back your contribution (1/3 off your ForeFlight subscription)! Our FREE SAFE Toolkit App puts required pilot endorsements and experience requirements right on your smartphone and facilitate CFI+DPE teamwork. Our CFI insurance was developed specifically for CFI professionals (and is the best value in the business).

Gov. Shutdown Effects on Aviation

This political showdown has given both “sides” a megaphone to voice political viewpoints. Avoiding all this hostility (please?), the effect on aviation – and especially flight training – is increasingly damaging as this shutdown continues to deepen. The unified controller and pilot unions have cautioned that safety is and major airports are experiencing slowdowns. My company had two charter jets grounded waiting for RVSM approval – not coming since FSDOs closed – but fortunately the reg. now has changed allowing ADS-B to serve for separation.

As far as FAA testing goes, PCI (CATS/LaserGrade) is advising everyone that you can take a FAA knowledge test but the results will not be recorded by the FAA (so no good until the guvm’nt gets rolling again).

“Valued PSI Customer, we have been authorized to resume FAA Airman Knowledge Testing. However, please be advised that processing of results will be delayed until the FAA resumes normal operations.
Thank you for your understanding.”

It is theoretically possible take that newly printed paper test result to a DPE and manage your practical test entirely with a FAA paper 8710-1, sending it directly to the FAA in Oklahoma City. That should work if you have a DPE willing to work the paper. But unfortunately, your actual plastic certificate will not be issued until the shutdown is over though and you are on a 120 day temporary that will expire.

An FAA 8o6o-4 temporary certificate  is only good for 120 days so your privileges expire after that day- no plastic will be coming from FAA Registry. FSDOs are closed so no extensions after the 120 day duration will be available. If your IACRA submission was entered *before* the Dec 22nd shutdown and approved you can log-in and extend your privileges by logging into the FAA website here. But with the loss of FSDO services, if your temporary never got into the queue in Oklahoma City, your privileges will expire when the 120 day temporary expires!

The FAA Academy in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, where controllers go for training, is closed which is unfortunate at a time of critical controller shortages. The FAA Aeronautical Central Counsel office is closed and unable to issue opinions, delaying aircraft registration for certain types of trusts and businesses until the shutdown ends. And the FAA’s medical certification branch is closed, meaning pilots will have to wait until the shutdown is over to receive their medical certificates from the FAA if they have a special issuance.

The Airline Pilots Association has written to President Trump asking him to end the shutdown in the interest of aviation safety:

and a more recent letter is now available cautioning the impending safety and slow-down concerns:

The National Air Traffic Controllers Association is holding a rally in Washington today to ask government to end the shutdown and work on a separate political solution that does not jeopardize aviation safety:

StopShutDown

That is the story as far as we know now, let us know *YOUR experiences* and thereby help others through this difficult time?  Feel free to share your (aviation) stories and concerns here. Please do not vent about your political viewpoints here (social media works for that!)


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Join SAFE to support our safety mission of generating aviation excellence in teaching and flying. Our amazing member benefits pay back your contribution (1/3 off your ForeFlight subscription)! Lastly, use our FREE SAFE Toolkit App to access pilot endorsements and experience requirements right on your smartphone and facilitate CFI+DPE teamwork. Working together to raise professionalism makes all of us safer pilots!

CFIs Are Not All Equal: CFI-PRO®!

Previously published in the FAA Pilot Examiner Quarterly (shared by permission) Here is a unfortunate story of a “Rusty CFI” (not current teaching though probably very current in his biz jet). DPEs see cases like this too often- where the well-meaning CFI was not up to speed. New CFIs need mentoring, non-current CFIs need refreshing (a FIRC every two years is not enough).

Here is a scenario that happens much more often than you would think…  A commercial pilot is blessed with a great paying flying job with a lot of down time.  (Well maybe not that part) Anyway, the lucky one…we will call him “Stan” has not been an active flight instructor for more than ten years. Nevertheless, he dutifully renews his flight instructor certificate by completing an online Flight Instructor Re-fresher Course (FIRC) every 24 months. He then goes to Sheryl his local DPE and pays her an administrative fee to review his application and FIRC graduation certificate and renew his certificate.

One day our hero Stan is polishing up his Beech Debonair. He is approached by one of his hangar neighbors at the airport who asks if he can train his 16 year old son for his “pilot’s license” in their family Cessna 120.  Stan decides “well… I haven’t used the certificate and some time, maybe I should give back to the aviation community”. He reluctantly takes on the eager new student and agrees to train him free of charge.  Having not been active for a while, Stan is not aware that there have been significant changes since he was a young instructor building time to move to the airlines. Not only that, he has never instructed outside of the confines of a 141 flight school. When he was teaching with the school he had a syllabus and other more senior instructors to check his paperwork; bounce questions off of; and help keep him out of trouble.  Our student…“Junior” reports for his first flying lesson the following morning and Stan sits down with him to chat and make sure that he is ready to begin flight training. Junior is ahead of the game and went to an AME and got a second class medical. Stan looks at the medical and notices that it is on a white piece of paper but it doesn’t say “Student Pilot Certificate”. He remembers from his FIRC that there was a change in the regulation….”Uh… let’s see…. yeah that’s right, the AME no longer issues student pilot certificates and I just have to put the endorsements in his logbook instead of on back of the certificate.” They discuss the first lesson, do a preflight inspection and go out in fly.

Junior is a quick study and Stan decides to solo him after only about 8 hours of dual flight instruction. He makes an endorsement in the “boiler plate” section in the back of Junior’s logbook and sends him on his way around the pattern. After three perfect “three pointers” he congratulates Junior with a ceremonial douse with a bucket of water and cuts his shirt tail for this momentous occasion. –

Soon they are working on the cross-country and night portion of training and Junior’s subsequent solo flights go well. Stan always looks in the back of the logbook and signs the boilerplate endorsement that most applies to the flight that Junior is doing. Soon he has flown off all the solo and dual time required and has completed his Private Pilot Knowledge test and Stan deems him ready for the practical test.

Junior goes into IACRA and registers for an account and begins to fill out an application for a Private Pilot Certificate Single Engine Land. He has no problem with it until he reaches the section “Have you ever held an FAA pilot certificate?” He thinks “Well yes… I have a second-class medical; but where is that certificate number? He asks his instructor. Stan scratches his head, picks up the phone, and calls one of his co-workers who flight instructs regularly. Through the conversation, he finds out that the paper student pilot certificates he once knew are now a plastic card. Stan’s heart leaps into his throat realizing his mistake. He tells Junior to log back into IACRA and start and new application for Student pilot and Stan approves it.  Two weeks later, Junior receives a notice that his temporary student pilot certificate is ready in IACRA. Stan, then has junior finish his application for private pilot and calls Sheryl, the DPE to make an appointment for Junior’s practical test.

Stan prepares Junior for his test and wants to be a good instructor so goes to the appointment with him to make sure that Sheryl has everything she needs to start the exam. They meet at Sheryl’s office early in the morning. She first reviews the aircraft log-books and all appear to be in order. She then looks at Junior’s application and begins to look at his pilot logbooks. She checks his student pilot certificate, which has an issuance date of just a little over two weeks ago.  She also notices that there is not a tailwheel endorsement.

“Stanley, I’m sorry but I cannot accept this application.” Sheryl Says…

“Why not?” Asks Stan.

“This temporary student pilot certificate was issued a 2 weeks ago…and on top of that, Junior doesn’t have a tailwheel endorsement.” Says Sheryl.

“Well, I did all the training. I can put the tailwheel endorsement in there now.” Says Stan.

Sheryl explains. “Stan, that still wouldn’t make the flight time valid. He didn’t have the tailwheel endorsement required to act as pilot in command and he didn’t possess a valid student pilot certificate when he conducted these solo flights. I’m afraid all of his solo time just doesn’t count.” Unfortunately, for Stan and Junior, Sheryl is right. She confirms this when she calls her POI to see if there is any way they can move forward. So…What happens at this point?  Who is responsible? What are the repercussions?

It was an honest mistake but legally, there could be enforcement action against both!

Stan and Junior and probably at least a re-examination ride for Stan. The FAA would also require Junior to re-fly all of his solo flights that were made without a valid student pilot certificate before he would be eligible for a private pilot certificate. Junior also would have to bear the expense.  A student pilot hires a qualified instructor to provide a safe environment for them to learn. Above all, the instructor must be a professional. They must have an understanding of the learning process, a knowledge of the fundamentals of teaching and an ability to communicate effectively with the student pilot. They must also have a thorough knowledge of aeronautics, regulations, and possess a keen attention to detail.

Before soloing a student 61.3 states that “No person may serve as a required pilot flight crewmember of a civil aircraft of the United States, unless that person has in their physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft when exercising the privileges of that pilot certificate.”

In this case it would be a temporary student pilot certificate issued under §61.17 Most prospective students essentially know little if any about regulation. It is the duty of the flight instructor to educate students about the certificates and documents required when they begin their flight training.

The responsibility falls upon the instructor to make sure that they meet all the regulatory requirements when they are going to operate an aircraft solo. The flight instructor must also administer a pre-solo knowledge exam that includes applicable sections of parts 61 and 91. One of those questions should be… “What documents are required to be in your possession when acting as PIC on a solo flight?”

DPEs see mistakes like this all too frequently. It is SAFE’s mission to elevate the professionalism of aviation educators. We do this through resources, training, and mentoring; Join SAFE and pursue excellence in aviation. If you are in training and have a bad CFI do not hesitate to “Ditch the Duds” or “Fire Your CFI.” Get a CFI-PRO®


Our FREE SAFE Toolkit App gives every CFIs the necessary guidance for pilot endorsements and pilot experience requirements right on your smartphone. This app facilitates smooth CFI+DPE teamwork.

Join SAFE for more tools and to resources for greater educational professionalism. Your membership supports our safety mission of generating aviation excellence in teaching and flying. Our amazing member benefits pay back your contribution (1/3 off your ForeFlight subscription)!

Stan should have taken the initiative to re-search the regulations a little closer. When he looked at Junior’s Medical certificate, he was unsure but assumed that he knew the answer was that he did not need a student pilot certificate based on a vague recollection of his FIRC training. When you assume anything, you can assume trouble. A review of the regulations or a call to his local DPE or FSDO Aviation Safety Inspector would have cleared this issue up before it became a serious problem.

Safety=Caution Vs Courage!

Confidence is a necessary but slippery pilot attribute. If we did not dream big and try hard we would never succeed in aviation. But carrying this too far is often the root cause of accidents “over-reaching” our skills. Please listen to this brief YouTube audio and tell me honestly if you have never “bit off more than you can chew?” in terms of your perceived vs actual abilities? And though experience is often defined as “learning that occurs when the test comes before the training,” luck is often our only savior in these cases.

Nicely on the center line! This kind of accident is not even necessarily reported…

So how can we more reliably achieve the correct balance of confidence and caution? Can we even accurately assess our own skills without others? The first necessary step in all situations is the calming ability to say “no” to impulsivity and create a pause between action and reaction. Once we have stopped the inner child, we must appraise and reflect on options and consequences, weighing the risks. Merely visualizing the worst outcomes sometimes is all that is needed to move more slowly and cautiously in a better direction. Two huge forces in aviation that actively collide with fight safety are perceived time savings (efficiency)  and pilot ego; “how will I be perceived by others.”  Getting over these makes you immediately safer.

The reasonable “sounding board” of a trusted advisor is a sure way to add safety to any decision; one reason Part 135 and 121 usually require two pilots. So if it’s a tight decision, expand your resources and solicit some advice. A worthy motto, borrowed from MADD, is”friends don’t let friends fly stupid.” This means both seeking and listening to the opinion of others but also speaking up to prevent “an accident waiting to happen.” As pilots we are often so reticent to intervene we allow others to unnecessarily come to peril.

Let’s agree to work together cooperatively and prevent accidents. The pilot above ignored the wise counsel of ATC; “how about a different field with less wind and a more favorable alignment?”  It takes more humility and less “courage” to fly safely but that way we will be around to enjoy more flights!

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Join SAFE to support our safety mission of generating aviation excellence in teaching and flying. Our amazing member benefits pay back your contribution (1/3 off your ForeFlight subscription)! Lastly, use our FREE SAFE Toolkit App to access pilot endorsements and experience requirements right on your smartphone and facilitate CFI+DPE teamwork. Working together to raise professionalism makes all of us safer pilots!

Better Teaching/Learning: “Make It Stick!”

As aviation educators we tend to put a lot of emphasis on technical content but we often miss the superior learning techniques that make this information stick. Recent educational research reveals that the most effective learning strategies are not intuitive at all, and much of what we have been taught – or picked up from osmosis over years of experience – about how to learn is wrong.

Make it Stick; The Science of Successful Learning” is a very enjoyable and readable book. It was the collaborative process of many writers over years of development. And what’s not to love about a learning text that starts out with an aviation example:

This book debunks some of the common learning strategies that are “time-proven” and “feel good” to the learner. Instead it suggests some more effective techniques to advance your learning – for both you and your students. For instance, instead of highlighting and re-reading material, the authors recommend summarizing material in your own words and testing yourself over a period of time (pop quizzes!). This more effortful  “reflective learning” has proven to be much more effective for retention and future application. And instead of the intensive cram session, break your studying down into “distributed learning sessions” over a longer periods of time mixing several areas together; called “interleaving.” By injecting personal meaning and creatively reformatting material, we help ensure that difficult information will be available when you need it – on that dark and stormy night when the engine is running rough!

Anytime a learning session is more interactive and creatively involves the learner it is going to stick better. Challenging your learner, rather than spoon feeding – even adding “desirable difficulties” – to improve retention. And that is not intuitive at all; weren’t we all taught to make subjects as easy and simple as possible? A summary of this text is here for those pressed for time. A very good (and FREE) Coursera on “Learning How to Learn” is available for the exceptionally motivated. Enjoy and let me know what you think? Fly safely (and often)!

Join SAFE to support our safety mission of generating aviation excellence in teaching and flying. Our amazing member benefits pay back your contribution (1/3 off your ForeFlight subscription)! Lastly, use our FREE SAFE Toolkit App to access pilot endorsements and experience requirements right on your smart phone and facilitate CFI+DPE teamwork. Working together to raise professionalism makes all of us safer pilots!

Fly SAFE; More Fun!

Wishing you a warm and happy Thanksgiving! Here are some (not often consulted) words from the new FAA Advisory Circular 61-98D on flight reviews – excellent reading! The FAA specifies regulatory minimums for certificates; we all need to do better to be safe – and CFIs need to lead this initiative by modeling and inspiring aviation excellence.

Pilot Proficiency: Studies have shown that LOC usually occurs when pilots lack proficiency. Conditions exceeding personal skill limitations can present themselves at any time and can occur unexpectedly. In this event, the pilot should be able to avoid being startled, make appropriate decisions in a timely manner, and be able to exercise skills at a proficiency level he or she may not have maintained or attained since acquired during initial training. This makes personal currency programs and proficiency training essential.

Personal currency programs serve to develop and maintain pilot proficiency by promoting attributes such as aeronautical knowledge, aeronautical skill, and ADM. These attributes collectively determine the degree of aeronautical ability a pilot possesses. Highly proficient pilots are better able to avoid or manage an in-flight emergency in a safe and efficient manner. Consequently, the GAJSC recommends that pilots place emphasis on their specific proficiency needs by including training that may exceed regulatory minimum currency requirements.

Traffic Pattern Operations

LOC accidents often occur while pilots are maneuvering at low altitude and airspeed, such as in an airport traffic pattern. Pilots should adopt, and flight instructors should promote, training programs designed to reduce the risk of  GA accidents in traffic pattern operations. Flight instructors should provide training to mitigate the three areas of highest risk involving maneuvering an airplane in an airport traffic pattern. The first area is the risk of a departure stall; the second area is the risk of LOC if attempting to return to the field after an engine failure on takeoff, and the third area is the risk of LOC on the base to final turn.  

Flight instructors should emphasize training that ensures that pilots of small single-engine airplanes depart in coordinated flight at the best-rate-of-climb speed (VY ) for normal takeoffs, and maintain this speed to the altitude necessary for a safe return to the airport in the event of an emergency.  Flight instructors should train pilots of single-engine airplanes not to return to the field after an engine failure unless altitude and best glide requirements permit.  Accordingly, flight instructors should provide training that emphasizes the correct speeds at which light twin -piston aircraft depart the runway.  Flight instructors should emphasize that a departure at the best-angle-of-climb speed  (VX ) is used for obstacle clearance and short -field takeoff procedures.

Flight instructors should also emphasize the risks and potential consequences of climbing out at speeds less or greater than what is required for a particular type of takeoff. Flight instructors should train pilots of single-engine airplanes not to return to the field after an engine failure unless altitude and best glide requirements permit a safe return. Therefore, flight instructors should not routinely train pilots to make a 180- degree turn from a simulated engine failure while climbing. However, this training should occur at a safe altitude.  A critical part of conducting this training is for the flight instructor to be fully aware of the need for diligence, the need to perform this maneuver properly,  and to avoid any potential for an accelerated stall in the turn. It is essential for a pilot to know the altitude that will be lost in a 180 -degree turn, in the specific make and model  (M/M) flown, if and when a pilot considers turning back to the departure airport at best glide. During the before-takeoff check, the expected loss of altitude in the turn, plus a sufficient safety factor, should be related to the absolute altitude at which a turn back may be attempted.  In addition, the effect of existing winds on the preferred direction of a turn back should be briefed.

Flight instructors should also teach pilots to reject an approach and initiate a go-around when the pilot cannot maintain a stabilized approach. The GAJSC  recommends that pilots and flight instructor s emphasize stabilized approach and landing proficiency and conduct stabilized approaches as a standard practice. Flight reviews and IPCs should emphasize evaluating a pilot’s ADM,  departure skills, and ability to establish and maintain a stabilized approach and landing, while applying effective crosswind techniques to avoid the risk of  LOC when maneuvering in an airport traffic pattern. Effective scenario-based training, emphasizing ADM, departures, and establishing and maintaining a stabilized approach to a landing, reduces the risk of LOC in an airport traffic pattern. Many of the principles discussed in this paragraph apply to multiengine aircraft, but do not apply to single-engine operations in the multiengine airplane. Flight instructors should emphasize the correct speeds at which light twin -piston aircraft are operated in the traffic pattern and provide training in response to an engine failure in a variety of situations.  

Excellent guidance! Join SAFE to support our safety mission of generating aviation excellence in teaching and flying. Our amazing member benefits pay back your contribution (1/3 off your ForeFlight subscription)! Lastly, use our FREE SAFE Toolkit App to access pilot endorsements and experience requirements right on your smart phone and facilitate CFI+DPE teamwork. Working together to raise professionalism makes all of us safer pilots!

“Know-Do-Consider” to Build Savvy Pilots!

The heart of the new Airman Certification Standards is risk management. This essential wisdom was added to the limited PTS focus of skill and knowledge in 2016 to form the complete pilot experience of “know, do and consider” – knowledge, skill, judgment. These factors dynamically determine the safety of every flight. This new flight training initiative was driven directly from the aviation accident data. These numbers reveal over 80% of accidents result from human failings – usually bad judgment and flawed decision-making. Refining and improving judgment is a difficult, ongoing and never-ending challenge. It involves the internal battle within every pilot each time we fly; balancing utility with safety – often what we want against what is possible and sensible.

The primary methodology for training and testing risk management is the creative use of scenarios. Since flight training is necessarily conducted in a very limited environment of geography, weather, and equipment, the instructor (and later DPE) must mentally transport their learner into new and challenging imaginary situations to build and improve the decision-making skills that result in safer outcomes. Thought we train in one small area and  climate, we should theoretically experience a broad range of challenges. One additional advantage of this method is the safety benefit of failing in the mental arena rather than a real airplane; no one dies in a table top scenario! The best aviation educators are masters of creative questions and scenarios.

Simulators provide a deeper and more realistic version of scenario training (as well as enabling specific skill/drill procedure training), allowing an imaginative educator to more realistically transport their learner into all kinds of challenging environments. Each new scenario requires a different toolkit of skills, knowledge and judgment to prevail. The additional advantage to simulators is creating these “learning opportunities” without adding the expense and inconvenience inherent in a gas-powered, gravity-challenged devices. When learning occurs in this manner we are all safer!

The use of scenario-based training in general aviation became accepted and popularized though the availability of realistic full-motion simulators for the GA market – largely Redbird. SAFE’s original Executive Director, Doug Stewart, developed the Pilot Proficiency Project with Rich Stowell and created an ingenious catalog of masterfully crafted scenarios deployed on the Redbird Simulator. These original scenarios now number over 30 and are featured every year at Oshkosh in the Pilot Proficiency Center. This SAFE

project was the first nationally recognized use of scenario-based training in aviation, focusing largely on decision-making and risk management. Expanding this further, the SAFE Pilot Training Reform Symposium in Atlanta in 2011 led directly to the  FAA/industry partnership that resulted in the ACS.

We are lucky there are so many wonderful tools now available to foster personal improvement in risk management. This has become the accepted industry standard of aviation safety training. These are also valuable for aviation educators to employ as resources in flight training. The FAA Risk Management Handbook is the official source document from which many other documents flow. This is cited frequently in the ACS. The Aeronautical Decision Making chapter in the FAA Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge is also a solid resource for pilots seeking excellence or educators working with learners. The FAA has a dedicated page of CFI scenarios to help jump start your imagination and help you create your own. The EAA Pilot Proficiency website has a comprehensive catalog of scenarios for the Redbird [here]

Thanks for reading and please “follow” our SAFE blog to receive notification of new articles. Write us a comment and continue the dialogue. If you feel inspired, please contribute an article. We are always seeking more input on aviation improvements and flight safety. There are many highly qualified aviation educators out there!

And Join SAFE to support our safety mission of generating aviation excellence in teaching and flying. Our amazing member benefits pay back your contribution (1/3 off your ForeFlight subscription)! Lastly, use our FREE SAFE Toolkit App to access pilot endorsements and experience requirements right on your smart phone and facilitate CFI+DPE teamwork. Working together to raise professionalism makes all of us safer pilots!

Airline Professionals VS Worker Bee CFIs

After my blog yesterday on regional airline hiring I heard directly and on FB from 8 of my former employee/CFIs (some even started with me as students) who corrected the record for me. Thank-you guys, I am humbled and honored to have been any small part of all your lives, you are all amazing professionals and leaders in the safest aviation system in the world. I certainly did not intend to diminish that accomplishment (and in no way support the YouTube position).

One airline captain wrote this short article below to explain and clarify the current airline opportunities. Adam’s FB post was especially revealing with 19-20 days off a month, the hard-working professional CFI is certainly more accurately the “worker bee!”

The Benefits of Airline Flying

The Airline Worker Bee VS Professional CFI article makes some very good points (airline flying is certainly not for everyone!), but the YouTube video cited seems to miss the mark. The individual on the video, dressed in his former employer’s uniform, tells a tale of low pay and low job satisfaction. Throughout his narrative, he gives several examples that I feel are in need of additional perspective.

Commuting

The YouTube creator includes commuting to and from his base as part of his job. It’s not, it’s a choice. Most young adults move to their place of work and aren’t afforded the ability to fly for free to their office. Virtually every regional airline is hiring right now, offering nationwide basing options. A decade ago I may have empathized, as only high cost of living bases were available to up-and-comers (e.g., JFK/LGA).

Operational Tempo

Yes, time pressure does exist at the airlines. After a year in this environment, programming the FMS and completing the prerequisite preflight checks are second nature. It’s absolutely normal to feel overwhelmed during the first year. In addition, most regionals allow meal breaks and most crews can successfully divide up the required tasks so no one goes hungry.

Compensation / Career Trajectory

In today’s environment, the road to a major airline is the quickest it has been in decades. Upgrade to a six-figure regional captain seat is currently attainable within 2-3 years, quickly followed by the ability to get hired by a major. Based on NBAA salary surveys, a young person will likely make $1,000,000 – $2,000,000 more at a major airline than a large cabin business jet captain position (over a 20-30 year career span). Loss of license and long term disability are generally included in a major airline pilot’s benefits package, in addition to a 16% 401k contribution (no match required). Robust health insurance options are also available.

Although not mentioned, I will contend that there is no better place to quickly accumulate thousands of hours of flight time in a standardized environment with hundreds of other pilots (immense exposure). Regardless of where you want to end up (corporate, instructing, etc.), the foundation that a 121 operation offers will satisfy both auditors (e.g., Wyvern, Argus) and those on the hiring board that you’ve seen quite a bit. This isn’t to say that you can’t get the same exposure in other ways (charter!), but it’s certainly a well-vetted pathway.

Quality of Life

Totally subjective. Personally, I’d rather have a fixed schedule a month in advance than be on call. Some folks like the “dynamic” nature of non-flying jobs (I did at one point), but it’s hard to justify with little ones at home. Being “just a number” pays off in dividends when trying to manipulate one’s schedule to make a recital or tend to a sick loved one.

Job Satisfaction

Had the author stayed a bit longer, he may have been able to enter into the training department, joined the safety team, or engaged in management duties. There are incredibly satisfying roles within the airlines, from designing approach procedures to on-boarding a new type of aircraft into the fleet. Alternatively, he could’ve gotten senior enough to establish a light schedule where he could “teach GA” on his own time, even opening up his own 141 school (as many have done before him).

Bottom Line

David makes some great arguments in the blog post itself. There is truly a dire need for professional CFIs. There are many other roads in aviation. Airline flying isn’t for everyone. Mid-life career-changers may not benefit from the 121 life as much as a twenty-something. The video, however, is reminiscent of a medical student complaining about residency: “paying dues”, whether right or wrong, is a part of the airline career and pays off dividends in much less time than that of a medical doctor or aspiring professional athlete.

– JM is currently a pilot with experience in the 61, 121, 135, 141, 142, and OEM sectors. The views expressed above are his own and not representative of his employer. His views expressed are personal and he makes no claim of being an “aviation expert!”


Please “follow” our SAFE blog to receive notification of new articles. Write us a comment and continue the dialogue. If you feel inspired, please contribute an article. We are always seeking more input on aviation improvements and flight safety. There are many highly qualified aviation educators out there!

And please Join SAFE and support our mission of generating aviation excellence in teaching and flying. ourr amazing member benefits alone make this commitment worthwhile and fun. Lastly, use our FREE SAFE Toolkit App to put pilot endorsements and experience requirements right on your smart phone and facilitate CFI+DPE teamwork. Working together to raise professionalism makes all of us safer pilots!